Higher Education Value for Money or simply ‘Big Business’ An Avalanche is coming

Veronica writes

‘AN AVALANCHE IS COMING’ claims Donnelly, Barber and Rizvi (2013) That will sweep way the system of higher education as we now know it unless the necessary adjustments are made in the required time frame. Donnelly, Barber and Rizvi (2013) posits that if the parties concerned act boldly now the next 50 ( fifty ) years could be a golden era for higher education but if they do not act in required time frame -higher education system as we know it will have been swept away by the avalanche of changes heightened by globalization.

What is education? What qualities should anyone look for in an educated man? Allan Bloom the philosopher said of education ‘ it is the movement from darkness to light’ Education can be viewed as action or the process of the acquisition of knowledge and the ensuing development resulting from this process. Education is not, however, the same as training, even though training may be one of the ingredients of education. A person who has been taught to repair a car or play football can be said to have received training, but such training is not education. Likewise, learning is a necessary ingredient of education, not all forms of learning lead to education Animals can be trained but they lack the intelligence that according to Mohanan, (2010) is essential for the kind of learning that makes a person educated An educated person, therefore, is one who has undergone a process of learning that results in enhanced mental capability to function effectively in familiar and novel situations in personal and intellectual life (Mohanan, 2010). An educated person as presented would have acquired :the knowledge deemed to be general thinking abilities to build knowledge , the language for critiquing, the ability to communicate clearly, precisely, for epistemic purposes, the capability for independent learning, the capability to engage in rational modes of inquiry, and, crucially ,the mindset that facilitates all the qualities mentioned above ( Mohanan 2010) In essence the educated man should be able to learn, apply, unlearn and relearn. ‘Educatedness’ is acquired via a channel of formal education. However formal education according to Zib, (1987) is offered in a systematic, organized education model, structured and administered according to a given set of laws and norms, presenting a rather rigid curriculum as regards objectives, content and methodology In contrast Zib, (1987) , argues that non-formal education characteristics are found when the adopted strategy does not require student attendance, decreasing the contacts between teacher and student and most activities take place outside the institution as for instance, home reading and paperwork. Endowed with flexible curricula and methodology, capable of adapting to the needs and interests of students, and is contingent upon the student’s work pace. Non-formal education seems better to meet the individual needs of students (

‘Educatedness’ is acquired via a channel of formal education. However formal education according to Zib, (1987) is offered in a systematic, organized education model, structured and administered according to a given set of laws and norms, presenting a rather rigid curriculum as regards objectives, content and methodology In contrast Zib, (1987) , argues that non-formal education characteristics are found when the adopted strategy does not require student attendance, decreasing the contacts between teacher and student and most activities take place outside the institution as for instance, home reading and paperwork. Endowed with flexible curricula and methodology, capable of adapting to the needs and interests of students, and is contingent upon the student’s work pace. Non-formal education seems better to meet the individual needs of students

An educated person, therefore, is one who has undergone a process of learning that results in enhanced mental capability to function effectively in familiar and novel situations in personal and intellectual life (Mohanan, 2010). An educated person as presented would have acquired :the knowledge deemed to be general thinking abilities to build knowledge , the language for critiquing, the ability to communicate clearly, precisely, for epistemic purposes, the capability for independent learning, the capability to engage in rational modes of inquiry, and, crucially ,the mindset that facilitates all the qualities mentioned above ( Mohanan 2010) In essence the educated man should be able to learn, apply, unlearn and relearn. ‘

‘Educatedness’ is acquired via a channel of formal education. However formal education according to Zib, (1987) is offered in a systematic, organized education model, structured and administered according to a given set of laws and norms, presenting a rather rigid curriculum as regards objectives, content and methodology In contrast Zib, (1987) , argues that non-formal education characteristics are found when the adopted strategy does not require student attendance, decreasing the contacts between teacher and student and most activities take place outside the institution as for instance, home reading and paperwork. Endowed with flexible curricula and methodology, capable of adapting to the needs and interests of students, and is contingent upon the student’s work pace. Non-formal education seems better to meet the individual needs of students    (Ward, Sawyer .McKinney & Dettoni ,1974)

Barnett,(2007) however argues that the concept of education is in itself a part of the concept of Higher education Since higher education refers to a personal level of individual development above that that is connoted by the term ‘ education ’. It includes all the activities a given country deems to be higher education – not only those that take place within ordinary universities and graduate schools, but shorter term education and training courses (polytechnics, junior colleges, and various forms of technical specialty schools) that are 2-3( two to three) years in length, and even correspondence courses that make use of information technology and are targeted at a broad population of students Martin Luther King Jnr .had said ‘ intelligence plus character that is the true goal of education However this level of personal development although attractive has been becoming increasingly burdensome as the funding of higher education has been thrust more on the individual. While the value added by a first degree is being eroded it seems daily. The traditional university, government regulated and nationalistic in nature is now facing the challenges that globalization ensued. This process of interaction and integration among people.

While the value added by a first degree is being eroded it seems daily. The traditional university, government regulated and nationalistic in nature is now facing the challenges that globalization ensued. This process of interaction and integration among people companies, governments of different nations that is driven by international trade and investments is also aided by information technology. Thus globalization has impacted culture, political systems, environment, economic and human development and prosperity and well-being around the world. Globalization it has also affected higher education. More access to higher education aided by Massive Open Online Courses ( MOOCS). Students are shopping locally as well as internationally. Reduced public funding globally and increased private funding through loans or direct payments has made higher education increasingly costly

The questions of value are becoming sharper as the cost of getting a degree rises. This year, the National Center for Education Statistics in the US pointed out: ‘Between 2000/01 and 2010/11, prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board at public institutions rose 42%, and prices at private, not-for-profit institutions rose 31% after adjustment for inflation.’ According to the Wall Street Journal on February 28, 2013, total student debt in the US is up 51 percent from 2008–2012 and now totals nearly $1 trillion. Moreover, 35 percent of students under 30 with debt are delinquent (90 days or more behind with their payments), compared to just 21 percent in 2004. The cost pressures on public universities in England were a major reason why the British government created the new student fee regime in 2010 and introduced it in 2012 In Jamaica data as cited by Dergisi & Eğitimi (2010) revealed that the two main institutions of UTECH and UWI in November 2010 had 5898 beneficiaries in arrears, owing an amount of over J$947M This represented 64% of the loan made available to students in 2010. UWI students owed at that time 2010 -J$610.91M or 64% of the amount, while UTECH students owed J$337.39M or 36%. A level of delinquency that the researcher said would restrict the ability of the Student Loan Bureau (SLB) to respond to the needs of future students.

Loan Bureau (SLB) to respond to the needs of future students.
Students need guidance to focus on not only learning and becoming educated but on being strategic players in the marketplace. Students should study to suit job markets. More should pursue careers in STEM STEM is an acronym for the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math. Discussion of STEM-related programs had become a presidential priority for the previous President Obama because too few college students are pursuing degrees in these fields. The U.S. Department of Labor expects that there will be 1.2 million job openings in STEM-related fields by 2018, but there won’t be enough qualified graduates to fill them.
Christensen. & Eyring (2011) argues that as the cost of higher education rises to students. The university has to adjust. The researcher through an examination of ‘ Harvard’ and’ BYU-Idaho’ as well as other stories of innovation in higher education suggested new ways forward. New ways to deal with curriculum, faculty issues, enrollment, retention, graduation rates, campus facility usage, and a host of other urgent issues in higher education and presented a strategic model to ensure economic vitality at the traditional university

Christensen. & Eyring (2011 ) argues that there is a remorseless increase in cost is driven by the ‘bigger-and-better tendency’. Each university is striving to become Harvard, but the basic point is surely undeniable. The problem from the point of view of the undergraduate student is that much of the cost base of a traditional university is irrelevant to their experience and sometimes. as highly-paid expert research professors avoid undergraduate teaching responsibilities (Barton & Yun ( 2012) Simon & Ensign (2013 ) and Christensen & Eyring 2011) The quality higher education marketed is not the quality experienced. Unemployment awaits and heavy student loan debts is often the end results ‘An avalanche is coming’:, as the price charged to the student is not matching quality outcomes Students tend to equate cost with quality thus think additional cost is directly correlated with higher quality.

While graduates are less likely to be unemployed much depends on the nature of the degree and employers often question the skills a degree provides. Richard D Stephens, senior vice president for human resources and management claimed a recent study in the US showed a significant difference in the risk of unemployment among recent university graduates depending on their major. Those that majored in the liberal arts and non-technical subjects had some of the highest rates of unemployment (around 11 percent), while those with more technical expertise had significantly lower rates. Another study a recent survey from the National Association of College Employers found similar results. In average, earnings by Engineering major was the highest, at $75,000, while psychology, social work, and education had the lowest, at $42,000. ‘An avalanche is coming (Barber, Donnelly and Rizvi,2013) ’,

‘An avalanche is coming (Barber, Donnelly and Rizvi,2013) ’. The number of graduates in the world is increasing rapidly, partly due to the growing proportion of each age group going to university in developed countries,(Barber, Donnelly & Rizvi, 2013). By 2020, China alone will account for 29 percent of all the university graduates in the world aged 25–34., there will be as many Chinese graduates in that age group as in the entire US labour force. In addition to this. The prized first class honors are being devalued as the number of graduates gaining first class honors in the UK has more than doubled in the past decade. In just four years, the number has increased by 45 per cent. This trending matter alongside the changing demands of the global labour market drives the questions about the likely value of a traditional degree
The talk of the university as the agent of personal development that creates a finished good the educated man. A desirous outcome doubtlessly as one forms; social capital bridges that form linkages connecting people or groups further up or lower down the social ladder. The potential benefits of friends and families being able to help us emotionally, socially and economically Bourdieu, (1986)  Social capital has value, doubtlessly. Intellectual capital /personal capital the- Knowledge and competencies residing within the person. Financial capital who knows you know what you know… Familiar terms being used. However, Higher Education Institutions has some adjustments to make now, students too and all stakeholders. Or, An Avalanche is coming that will erode higher education as we know it.

Conclusion

Education, to be meaningful. must become the innovative, relevant, safe and reasonable solutions to the challenges that face us all nationally and globally Lecturers and students need to become partners that will drive this change. The government, Civil Society, Private sector and Philanthropists should work together to support the work of the drivers of change or an avalanche is coming. As Martin Luther King Jnr. said ‘ Intelligence plus character that is the true goal of education” it is the character that will ensure all comes together for the greater good of humanity.

williamsburroughs1teacherquotes_Oprahschool-itok=fivd0RFzimagesdepositphotos_4133156-stock-photo-education-and-graduation-capimages (1)

References
Barnett R , (1997) The idea of higher education Buckingham SRHE & OUP

Barber M., Donnelly K and Rizvi S. (2013) An avalanche is coming.Higher education         and the revolution ahead. Retrieved from http://www.avalancheiscoming.com/             April 5,2017.

Bourdieu, P. (1986) The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory          and Research for the Sociology of Education (New York, Greenwood), 241-258.

Christensen. C & Eyring H (2011) The Innovative University: Changing the DNA of             Higher Education from the Inside Out Retrieved from
https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ff1207s.pdf April 5, 2017

Eğitimi O & Dergisi E. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators Retrieved from
http://www.jtee.org/document/issue3/MAK5.pdf April 5, 2017

Mohanan K .P Who is an educated person? .Ingredients of Educatedness Retrieved           from http://www.iiserpune.ac.in/~mohanan/educated/who.htm April 5,2017

Ward T.W, Sawyer F.D, .McKinney L., &. Dettoni I.,(1974) “Effective Learning: Lessons        To Be Learned From Schooling, in “Effective learning in Non-Formal Education”,        Michigan State University,

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Higher Education Value for Money or simply ‘Big Business’ An Avalanche is coming

Using Simulation Technologies to Teach Nursing at HEIs in Jamaica

 

Patientsimulation (1)

What is Simulation? Simulation is essentially an imitation of what is real. Gaba (2007) defined simulation as a technique which replaces or amplifies real experiences with guided experiences. These situations replicate substantial aspects of the real world in an interactive fashion. A simulator is the device used for simulation. Is the use of simulation new in teaching nursing one may ask…the simple answer would be ‘NO.’ Traditionally in teaching nurses, simulation has always been used. Examples of these would be the practice of demonstrating skills in a lab and having students return the demonstration; the many role plays that are used to concretize concepts; using case studies and problem-based scenarios are all forms of simulated learning.  However, many senior nurses may well remember practicing giving an injection on oranges…and of course on patients hospitalised to be cared for. ‘Am I in the muscle?’

Injected Orange

Nursing is both a science and an art which requires both the theoretical knowledge and clinical expertise. Jamaica has consistently educated nurses who are highly sought after around the world with many nurses migrating to North America. The challenges that have arisen for some years now are the expansions of nursing programmes and the large numbers of students being admitted since nursing is being taught in the university settings. At the University of Technology, Jamaica, where I teach, for example, there is usually 100 students accepted in year one on the Kingston campus and another 50 at the Montego Bay campus. At the same time the University of the West Indies School of Nursing would be accepting even more than 100 students on their Kingston campus, with additional numbers at their Western campus and at franchised institutions in some of the Community Colleges in Kingston and other parishes; Northern Caribbean University also accepts very large numbers of students. Are you getting the picture? With so many students to be trained and all of them using the same clinical facilities, the overcrowding is inevitable. This results in students not being able to get ample clinical practice for the skills that they need. This is also occurring in a setting where so many nurses are migrating to other countries. In 2015, the Nurses Association President, Mrs. Janet Farr, raised the alarm that migration and resignation of specialist nurses from the public health system in 2014 resulted in extreme shortages and contributed to an increase in workload (Porter, 2015). This trend has continued steadily and in 2016, Minister of Health Christopher Tufton was reported as saying that migration of nurses has creating a health care crisis (The Jamaica Observer, 2016).

Why Simulation?

'Correct. And in the case of a cardiac arrest, every second counts. Who can tell me why? Anyone? Clock's ticking.'

The use of patients to teach and practice within the clinical setting will always be relevant in nursing and cannot be fully replaced. However, patient safety must be paramount. Patient safety is a major reason to use simulation in teaching nursing or any other health discipline for that matter. McGaghie, Issenburg, Cohen, Barsuk and Wayne (2011), reported that for the field of medicine a growing body of evidence supports improved patient care practices and better patient outcomes when clinical skills are acquired in medical simulation laboratory settings.

Other reasons, in addition to the changes in the clinical environment outlined above; are to facilitate deliberate practice and assessment; team training; research, improved technology as well as being more effective; facilitates immediate feedback; allows deliberate practice; curriculum integration; outcome measurement; skill acquisition and maintenance; transfer to practice among others. Simulation is also fun while learning! You can “kill” the patient without suffering terrible consequences (Gaba, 2007; McGaghie, Issenburg, Petrusa and Ross, 2010).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rAXptP1Reqw

How much is the simulation technologies used to teach nursing in Jamaica. The three major universities have a variety of simulators used to assist nursing students to learn. At UTech there are a mix of regular mannequins, medium fidelity simulators and high fidelity simulators. The simulators can be programmed to replicate many human responses such as crying, groaning, coughing; students can take vital signs, pass naso-gastric tubes, pass urinary catheters, set up intravenous lines; simulators can display illnesses such as asthma, heart failure etc. These abilities can allow the students to practice and become proficient in a safe place. The big BUT is do the institutions have all the human and material resources needed to fully utilize these simulators? Are there dedicated simulation labs that would replicate a hospital setting? These are challenges that the institutions face. Much more resources need to be put into this…more staff is needed and to be trained in simulation; more space is needed to create the proper environment and the nursing curriculum importantly must be revised to reflect the changes in teaching methodologies.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tr70-Ho-cQU

Examples of the simulators available in the simulation learning environment in Jamaica are:

20170405_093520

Medium Fidelity Simulators

20170405_093717          20170405_093854

High Fidelity Simulators Including a Pregnant Woman, SimMan & an ICU SimMan

Norman (2012) sums up at that time what the literature indicated on simulation in nursing education; the simulation learning environment proves that knowledge, skills, safety, communication and confidence is improved, however, there is a gap in literature on transfer of these outcomes to the clinical setting. In Jamaica, the simulation learning environment is still taking ‘baby steps’ and therefore will not yield the type of results that is seen in some countries. In addition the research is sparse and must be undertaken so that evidence can be used to support the use of simulation technologies to teach nursing in Jamaica. I fully support the use of simulation technologies to teach nursing in HEIs in Jamaica!

Cartoon Simulated

 

References

Gaba, D.M. (2007) The future vision of simulation in healthcare. Simul Health c, 2, 126-135.

Porter, R. (2015). Public health sector lost 200 nurses last year- NAJ. The Jamaica Observer. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Public-health-sector-lost-200-nurses-last-year—NAJ_19219817

McGaghie, W.C., Issenburg, S. B., Cohen, E. R., Barsuk, J.H., & Wayne, D.B. (2011). Does simulation-based medical education with deliberate practice yield better results than traditional clinical education? A meta-analytic comparative review of the evidence. Academic Medicine, vol. 86 (6), pp. 1-6.

McGaghie, W.C., Issenburg, S. B., Petrusa, E.R, & Scalese, R. J. (2010). A critical review of simulation-based medical education research: 2003-2009. Medical Education; 44: 50-63

Migration of nurses creating health care crisis – Tufton. (2016, January 26). The Jamaica Observer.  http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Migration-of-nurses-creating-health-crisis—Tufton

Norman, J. (2012). Systematic review of the literature on nursing education. The ABNF Journal; Spring 2012: pp. 24-28.

By: Keron Jones-Fraser

Using Simulation Technologies to Teach Nursing at HEIs in Jamaica

Mental Health and Higher Education

did you know

Bet you didn’t know that you may have mental health issues.

Well you could, that is 80% of higher education students are mentally ill (Smith, 2016).

Surprised

Well have you been yelling or fighting with family and friends, having unexplained aches and pains, feeling helpless or hopeless, smoking, drinking, or using drugs more than usual, feeling unusually confused, forgetful, on edge, angry, upset, worried, or scared and even thinking about harming yourself or others? (Smith, 2016).

MentalAccording to the psychologist, your mental wellbeing is questionable. Today’s young adults in higher education, increasingly need adequate mental health support and services. There is an increasing need for such services mainly because of the level of stress and emotional difficulties that come with studying at a post-secondary institution. Going to university is never easy. Therefore, this discussion will look at what is mental health, signs associated with the disorder, causes of mental disorder in higher education students, students’ academic performance and mental health services available at higher education institutions.

University students are one of the most sensitive strata of society, many of whom will become the future’s managers and planners, and the mental health of the society is contingent upon their mental health. One of the characteristics of a normal personality is having full mental health (Bostani, Nadri, & Nasab, 2014). It is said that one in four young adults between the ages of 18 and 24 have a diagnosable mental illness. (National Alliance on Mental Illness , 2015)

Wow!!!!!! Am I one in four?

wowSo, I decided to read deeper on the topic. This is what I found, mental health is a state of emotional, psychological, and social well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community (WHO, 2014). I exhaled! So, let’s find out if you the reader is. Depression, anxiety and stress are mental disorders that affect college students on a daily basis and majority of these students suffer from both depression and anxiety. A student who suffers from clinical depression will experience feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities, decreased energy, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions and difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping daily.

Can you imagine a student who also become easily irritable and has difficulty concentrating or having their minds go blank?

head

A survey conducted in 2009 suggested that 85% of college students reported experiencing stress daily (University of Florida, 2016).  Please note that the contributors to stress are academic demands, financial responsibilities and social pressures and expectations.

 

About one in 10 higher education students have experienced “suicidal thoughts”, according to a survey on mental health carried out at universities in the UK (Grove, 2013). In UK universities, more than a quarter of students (27%) report having a mental health problem of one type or another (Aronin & Smith, 2016). More than 25 percent of college students have been diagnosed or treated by a professional for a mental health condition within the past year. Freshmen accounted for more than one-third of undergraduate deaths with 40% due to suicide, and half of all deaths were due to falls from windows, balconies, and rooftops usually related to drug and alcohol abuse (Hernandez, 2006).

This is unbelievable, I could be walking past, sitting beside one of those persons. Why are higher education students suffering from this illness?

Struggling

College students have difficulty adapting to college life, competing, and handling their new-found freedom with minimal adult supervision. As they transition from high school to college, anxiety increases as they leave behind the support of family, friends, and familiar surroundings which may place them at risk for academic, personal, and social difficulties. (Hernandez, 2006). They are also coping with academic pressure and others are dealing with numerous work and family responsibilities.

Mental illnesses may interfere with post-secondary student’s ability to function at a tertiary institution. It can affect students’ ability to attend classes, focus on academic material, and learn effectively, which may lead to a decline in academic performance, that may discourage students and add to their mental vulnerability. Mental disorders may hinder motivation and/or induce feelings of discouragement and hopelessness  (University of Florida, 2016), for example, depression is a significant predictor of lower GPA and higher probability of dropping out, even after controlling for symptoms of anxiety and eating disorders, prior academic performance, and other covariates (Eisenberg & Ezra Golberstein, 2009).

i cant.jpg

Almost 73 percent of students living with a mental health condition experienced a mental health crisis on campus (National Alliance on Mental Illness , 2015). At higher education institution, the state of mental health is a growing crisis. Unfortunately, many college campuses are not equipped to offer adequate services to students with mental health issues. According to the National Mental Health Association (2010), consistent access to mental health intervention eludes many college students. Lack of financial resources, the difficulty of service delivery, stigmatization, and societal misconceptions of the mentally ill have been cited as reasons for the mental health services deficiency present in many college counseling centers (National Mental Health Association, 2010).  However, it is recorded that in general, post-secondary students are not seeking help, although in some colleges it is available. 40 percent of students with diagnosable mental health conditions did not seek help (National Alliance on Mental Illness , 2015). The number one reason for them not asking for help is the stigma that goes with it, although they are aware of the mental health services their university provides. Three-quarters of students were aware of counseling service provided by the institution.

SLB

The number of college students with mental disorders has increased and therefore calls into question not only their mental health, but its impact on higher education as it relates to policies that address incidences of violence, aggression, suicide, and disruptive behavior  are the higher education institution putting in place programmes or services to eliminate or lessen the occurrences of these mental health issues on their campuses (Hernandez, 2006). A programme that helps to prevent Suicide, training Peers to be able to identify the sign of mental illness and have the technique to defuse and help the student and distribute mental health information during, orientation, campus-wide events (carnival) are a good way to help those students suffering from this disorder.

From research done significant relations were found between educational performance and mental health and some of its components, such as depression and anxiety. Students with better mental health status have a better educational performance.

what do you think

Should these students attend higher education institutions?

If the institution does not take them in, will they have the cohort to hold classes.

Do all of us has a few mental health issues.?

Are lecturers immune?

Food for thought.

thHKAIL7FX

Are we all crazy!!!!!!!!!!

crazy

 

References
Aronin, S., & Smith, M. (2016, August 8). One in four students suffer from mental health problems. Retrieved from YouGov Website: https://yougov.co.uk/news/2016/08/09/quarter-britains-students-are-afflicted-mental-hea/

Bostani, M., Nadri, A., & Nasab, A. R. (2014, February 21). A Study of the Relation between Mental health and Academic Performance of Students of the Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Branch. Science Direct, 116, 163-165.

Eisenberg, D., & Ezra Golberstein, J. H. (2009, September). 11. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 9(1).

Grove, J. (2013, May 20). Students’ mental health problems highlighted. Retrieved from The World University Ranking Website: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/students-mental-health-problems-highlighted/2003957.article

Hernandez, N. E. (2006, November 17-18). The Mental Health of College Students: Challenges, Obstacles, and Solutions . Retrieved from New York Univerity Faculty Resource Website: https://www.nyu.edu/frn/publications/millennial.student/Mental-Health-Hernandez.html

National Alliance on Mental Illness . (2015, January). College Student Mental Health Statistics. Retrieved from Chadron State College Website: http://www.csc.edu/bit/resources/statistics/

Smith, J. (2016, March 2). Student mental health: a new model for universities . Retrieved from The Hugher Education Network: The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/2016/mar/02/student-mental-health-a-new-model-for-universities

University of Florida. (2016, September). Understanding Mental Health and Academics. Retrieved from University of Florida Counseling and Wellness Center Website: http://www.counseling.ufl.edu/cwc/understanding-mental-health-and-academics

WHO. (2014, August 31). Mental health: a state of well-being. Retrieved from World Health Organization Website: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/

Mental Health and Higher Education